Sport is one of the greatest passions of Brazilians. Its large audience in competitions influences the practice, whether professionally or amateur. In this scenario, sports training is a branch of physical education that aims to plan an individual’s exercise routine, respecting their specificities and goals.
It is proven that the practice of physical exercise regularly helps in the prevention of various diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and osteoporosis, in addition to fighting obesity and a sedentary lifestyle. And there’s nothing better than sport to encourage people to leave home and develop their physical and technical skills, isn’t it?
In this post, you will have complete information about what and what are the principles of sports training, as well as knowing its benefits and disadvantages, when performed incorrectly. Read on!
What is sports training?
Sports training is the set of physical activities performed over a long period of time, progressively, whose function is to develop the human, physiological and psychological capacities of an individual. They are exercises planned in an individualized and systematic way for the evolution of an athlete. See more details below:
Objectives and principles
The objectives of sports training are diverse, the main ones being the evolution of the individual’s physical form and technique. When it is done correctly, it helps to improve the performance of an athlete, however, some principles must be followed to obtain the desired results.
It is highly recommended that a physical education professional be responsible for planning the training to meet all the specifics of each person. Even in teams with many athletes, treatment must be individualized, as each organism has a different response to stimuli.
Although the technical issues are more explored, it is important to highlight that training should embrace other areas, such as psychology and nutrition. Good mental development is essential to achieve training goals, in the same way that food can be an ally or a villain in results, depending on its use.
The growing importance of monitoring the evolution of athletes
Currently, the profession of sports coaching is on the rise, working as an individual or group coach to help in the physical, technical, and psychological development of athletes. Its objective is to find the individual’s potential and explore their main qualities, which helps in the search for results in sport.
During childhood, sports aid in child development, regardless of whether the child will become an athlete in the future or not. Exercises are allied in the processes that every organism goes through in its first years of life, such as the expansion of motor coordination and social skills.
In recent years, professional sport has been adapting to these principles, especially with regard to closely following the evolution of athletes. Several football clubs, for example, have physiology and psychology teams to seek better results in the physical and mental development of players.
What are the principles of sports training?
In order to improve an athlete’s performance, it is necessary to understand some technical requirements, which directly influence the activity schedule and the results obtained. Check out some fundamental principles of sports training below:
This is probably the main one. Each body reacts to exercise stimuli in a different way, which results in specific adaptations. This is explained by the fact that an individual is formed by two genetic concepts, defined as genotypes and phenotypes, which constitute its characteristics.
In short, the genotype is the genetic constitution of a cell or individual, that is, all the genes present in that organism. The phenotype is the genetic expression of a being, that is, the physical and physiological characteristics that are presented and can be developed throughout life.
Thus, sports training must be individualized, respecting the characteristics of each one. Therefore, it is not correct to create standard exercise sheets and apply them in groups. The assessment and physical tests are essential to know the particularities of a person and adapt the most suitable exercises, also taking into account the goals sought in Training Analysis.
A great example of biological individuality is that if you apply the same training to two twins, the reactions will be different. Even if two people have a similar biotype, they may have differences in their genetic and physiological makeup, which demands a more individualized treatment.
In the same way that a human being’s physical abilities are developed with exercise, they also return to the initial stage if they are not stimulated. This is the principle of reversibility, which must be taken into account when planning sports training.
Time is another important factor. That is, if an attribute is developed quickly, it will return with the same speed. Furthermore, resistance is more easily lost than strength. Therefore, it is essential to correctly plan the training, to achieve more lasting gains.
This principle is directly linked to reversibility. For physical fitness to be developed, the body must receive a higher load than it is adapted for, which results in overcompensation. In this process, the body is forced to respond to imposed stimuli in order to adapt to the continuity of training, which increases its capabilities.
Through an evaluation, the initial loads of an exercise are defined. With the development of skills, it is up to the professional to renew the training increasingly and gradually, which can be done in two ways: increasing the volume (number of repetitions or time, for example) or increasing the intensity (weight of the devices, for example).
Along with the principle of overload, adaptation is linked to stress, that is, to the stimuli the body receives during physical exercise. The human organism always seeks to be in homeostasis, which means to be in balance. This occurs in cases of illness, emotions, or even ambient temperature.
This homeostasis is directly linked to supercompensation. During sports training, the stimuli can cause adaptations in the body, which prepares itself to receive a higher load next time. However, too strong a stimulus can do harm. Thus, it is necessary to pay attention to the exercises not having an opposite and negative effect.
This is yet another of the principles that directly connect with biological individuality. However, in this case, the activities must be specific to achieve the desired objectives with the exercises. Thus, the activities cannot be different from what athletes perform in their competitions, especially on dates close to the games.
When learning a new exercise, the brain stores these neuromuscular coordinations in the neocortex. The more repetitions, the stronger this memory will be, while, if not stimulated, this movement will be weakened (the reversibility principle).
During the practice of sport, an athlete who applies the principle of specificity does not need to create new neuromuscular coordination, but rather remembers those already learned and performs them in a natural way, which maximizes its effectiveness.
A football player, for example, must perform movements of his sport if he wants to develop his skills to the fullest on the field. Other types of activities should only be carried out in case of learning saturation. It is up to the professional to develop specific methods for sports training.
Initially, this principle seems to contradict that of specificity, since it preaches generality, that is, greater development of the individual. However, this does not necessarily mean a total change in the exercises, but a variation in their loads and repetitions, for example.
One of the reasons for varying activities is to fight the discouragement that can arise from the excessive repetition of a movement. In addition, it is possible to develop new skills and improve the performance of the athlete, who can look for new weapons to be effective within their sport.
For which modalities sports training is best suited?
There is no sport in which sports training is more suitable. This is because any activity has its particularities, so it is up to the professional to seek technical knowledge to apply their methodology effectively. Furthermore, as each athlete has their own characteristics, individualized training should be used in any sport.
In football, for example, there has been a change in the approach to the game in recent decades, which has increased the physical demands of players. Despite this, the technique is still essential to achieve good results, that is, a combination of these two factors in training is necessary to ensure a good preparation of the player.
In volleyball, speed is not totally required, but other physical aspects, such as impulsion and strength, are fundamental. Thus, it is not possible to repeat soccer exercises in their training, which requires from the professional a good theoretical knowledge of the mechanics of movements, in order to improve the player’s technique and attributes.
The most important thing for the teacher or coach is to know how to identify the main characteristics of their athletes and develop them, finding a balance between the repetition of the exercises, in order to improve their technique and variation in the routine, to avoid lack of motivation and harmful overload to the body.
What are the main benefits of sports training?
The sport is commonly associated with high-performance professionals, such as soccer players and Olympic athletes. However, good sports training brings several benefits to any individual, which directly impact the quality of life and work of each one.
We list below some advantages that sport can bring to the body, especially if it is performed at the correct intensity since childhood, with sport initiation. Check out!
bone health development
The practice of sports increases the levels of calcium in the body, which directly influences the strengthening and consolidation of bones. It is true that the amount of this substance is influenced by other factors, such as genetic heritage, but training from childhood contributes to better bone health.
In the first decades of life, the practice of sports is very indicated because it is the phase when, generally, the organism reaches the peak of bone mass. It is around 18 to 21 years that the body is at its maximum level of calcium, however, science believes that this value reaches 50% during adolescence.
The higher this peak, the greater the calcium reserve for older ages. Osteoporosis is a disease that affects more than 10 million Brazilians and must be prevented from childhood, with the practice of exercise — mainly in women, who tend to have a smaller peak — and calcium intake in the necessary amounts.
Prevention of physical problems
When done correctly, sports training helps to prevent injuries, which compromise exercise continuity. In the case of a high-performance athlete, keeping in shape means competing in more competitions and achieving better results, in addition to keeping the technique in continuous development.
In weekend athletes, the practice of physical activities guarantees the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and problems related to diabetes, hypertension, among others. However, not paying attention to the correct movement or exaggerating the load can generate muscle pain or even complications in the spine, which will force a pause in the exercises.
Following the principle of adaptation, close monitoring of the athlete is necessary, with tests and physical assessments to know the levels of strength, body fat, and fatigue. The latter is essential to check the possibility of injuries and is constantly used in professional clubs in the decision to climb or spare players.
Performance is always linked to professional sport, but a good training plan can mean improvements in work performance. It is important to highlight that physical exercise helps to release important substances for the body, such as endorphins, which fight stress, anxiety, and depression.
In the case of athletes, training is the only way to improve their technique and physical conditioning, which results in greater achievements in their profession. The repetition of movements in the correct dosage guarantees a greater ability to overcome obstacles and perform them automatically, increasing the chances of success.
This is one of the main concepts of sports training, necessary to obtain better results based on the objective of each athlete. Each body reacts in a way to physical stimuli, which forces the physical education professional to plan a personalized exercise routine.
Another benefit of individualized training is the follow-up of the exercises, to understand if the routine is having a positive performance or should be intensified. Furthermore, variation in activities decreases the chances of an athlete’s motivation problem, which may focus on developing their skills in different ways.
What are the most common mistakes in sports training?
Physical activities are important allies in the development of the human body and in preventing health problems. However, if they are not performed correctly, there is a risk of not achieving the expected results or, in more extreme cases, harming the development of the individual’s functions.
Here we separate some points that should be highlighted when planning training and that is often forgotten by athletes. See more!
Sleep is one of the most important factors in sports training, as it directly influences muscle recovery and learning about exercises performed during the day. During N3, which is deep sleep, GH is produced, a hormone responsible for growth and which directly impacts physical vigor.
It is also during sleep that adaptations to exercises take place, that is, it is when the brain memorizes the repetitions performed in training. Thus, a bad night’s sleep can compromise the athlete’s performance, in addition to increasing the propensity for injuries, due to the lack of recovery.
Therefore, it is essential to maintain a constant sleep routine, which implies getting only enough sleep — the average is eight hours a day, but it varies in each organism. Long nights lying down are not recommended, as excessive sleep can lead to brain problems.
In addition to time, it is important to maintain good environmental and physical conditions during sleep. This means sleeping in a suitable place, with no light and no noise, to calmly reach the stages necessary for the production of hormones. In case of insomnia, the athlete should seek medical help to evaluate possible solutions.
In addition to proper exercise planning for an athlete’s needs, nutrition should be given special attention. It is the diet that provides the nutrients needed to develop an individual’s physical capabilities, such as strength, speed, and endurance.
Sports nutrition plays an important role in high-performance teams and athletes and can not be neglected, even in people who do not practice sports professionally. All types of nutrients, such as carbohydrates and proteins, have specific functions that, when used outside the correct measure, hinder the development of activities.
Food also respects the principle of biological individuality, which means that each organism has its own nutritional needs. In professional clubs, a nutritionist is part of the medical department, which indicates her importance in improving athletes and preventing injuries.
Train on your own
This is one of the biggest mistakes an athlete makes, especially for beginners. The guidance of physical education or sports professionals is essential to ensure that the goals and needs of sports training are met, in addition to impacting the physical and technical issues of the activities.
One of the great dangers of training on your own is the chance of injury from doing the exercises incorrectly. The professional is able to correct posture errors and adapt loads to the athlete’s physical limits, which avoids a bad overload and damage to the body.
It is important that the professional has knowledge in exercise physiology, for better planning of activities. Basketball players, for example, need strength and explosiveness to perform better on the court, while a runner needs to develop mainly his speed to cross the finish line in front. Therefore, getting to know the human body and its particularities better ensures better training.
Furthermore, knowledge of the sport’s technique helps in the search for concrete results. In the same way that a weight training teacher can indicate possible errors in movement, a volleyball coach must perfect the mechanics of a serve or reception, for example, to maximize the player’s performance.
A coach or teacher also has a psychological role in the athlete’s training, increasing the motivation needed to perform the exercises. As mentioned above, monotony can be a disincentive for the individual, and finding new training methods helps to alleviate this problem.
Continuity can be seen in two different ways: the correct balance between stimuli and recovery time, and the need for a minimum time for exercise results to appear, whether physical or technical.
It is essential to maintain a periodicity in Training Analysis that respects the principles of reversibility. Good planning ensures that the athlete maintains his development in a correct way, without skipping or rushing steps. In this regard, the monitoring of a professional is essential to ensure this.
Even though training is the only way to improve an athlete’s performance, you must be careful not to overdo the exercises. This process, known as overtraining, can compromise rep gains. Goals are important for measuring results, but they cannot be closed and unchanged.
It is noteworthy that, according to physical education professionals, the results take about three months to appear on the body. This means that the beginning of training is the most complicated part, as the lack of motivation can make it difficult to continue the exercise. In other words, it is necessary to persevere to notice the development.
Sports training is one of the most important practices for the athlete, as it maximizes their potential and improves their performance in various aspects of the profession. It is up to the trainer to carry out the necessary assessments to adapt the stimuli to the specific needs of his student and carry out the necessary follow-up to avoid injuries and ensure better results.