In general, there are two types of culture systems for directed neural differentiation of hESC, including adherent and suspension culture. In a prolonged culture, an embryoid body (EB) can form a multilayered structure and cavities filled with cystic fluid. In addition, a variety of signaling molecules, factors, and conditioned media have been used for directed neural differentiation.
- For example, stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIS) mediated neural differentiation presents an efficient method, but unknown stromal factors may be introduced.
- Retinoic acid (RA) plays important role in neural development and activity, RA-mediated neural differentiation occurs by activation of genes, such as NFkB, SOX1, SOX6, BRN2, PSEN1, MAP2.
- Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling promotes the generation of neuronal, and Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) signaling has been implicated in the induction and patterning of neural tissues.
- The Neurobasal medium is essential for the derivation and maintenance of NP cells.